Friday, March 28, 2014

Gelett Burgess The Ghost-Extinguisher

The humor writer Gelett Burgess (1866-1951) was graduated with a B.S. from M.I.T. in 1887.  He switched from a technical career to a literary career in 1895 when he helped found The Lark, a little magazine of humor and light verse.  Touches of his technical background are evident in this humorous ghost story from 1905, with references to mathematics (quaternions and least squares), chemistry (the formaldehyde-based spirit coagulator compound), and mechanics (the ghost extinguisher apparatus).  Burgess's story can be thought of as an ancestor of the 1984 comedy film Ghost Busters.

This story, although a bit longer than the short-form articles I usually post, is a breezy read.

Cosmopolitan Magazine
April, 1905

The Ghost-Extinguisher

My attention was first called to the possibility of manufacturing a practicable ghost-extinguisher by a real-estate agent in San Francisco.

“There's one thing,” he said, “that affects city property here in a curious way.  You know we have a good many murders, and, as a consequence, certain houses attain a very sensational and undesirable reputation.  These houses it is almost impossible to let; you can scarcely get a decent family to occupy them rent-free.  Then we have a great many places said to be haunted.  These were dead timber on my hands until I happened to notice that the Japanese have no objections to spooks.  Now, whenever I have such a building to rent, I let it to Japs at a nominal figure, and after they've taken the curse off, I raise the rent, the Japs move out, the place is renovated, and in the market again.”

The subject interested me, for I am not only a scientist, but a speculative philosopher as well.  The investigation of those phenomena that lie upon the threshold of the great unknown has always been my favorite field of research.  I believed, even then, that the Oriental mind, working along different lines than those which we pursue, has attained knowledge that we know little of.  Thinking, therefore, that these Japs might have some secret inherited from their misty past, I examined into the matter.

I shall not trouble you with a narration of the incidents which led up to my acquaintance with Hoku Yamanochi.  Suffice it to say that I found in him a friend who was willing to share with me his whole lore of quasi-science.  I call it this advisedly, for science, as we Occidentals use the term, has to do only with the laws of matter and sensation; our scientific men, in fact, recognize the existence of nothing else.  The Buddhistic philosophy, however, goes further.

According to its theories, the soul is sevenfold, consisting of different shells or envelopes—something like an onion—which are shed as life passes from the material to the spiritual state.  The first, or lowest, of these is the corporeal body, which, after death, decays and perishes.  Next comes the vital principle, which, departing from the body, dissipates itself like an odor, and is lost.  Less gross than this is the astral body, which, although immaterial, yet lies near to the consistency of matter.  This astral shape, released from the body at death, remains for a while in its earthly environment, still preserving more or less definitely the imprint of the form which it inhabited.

It is this relic of a past material personality, this outworn shell, that appears, when galvanized into an appearance of life, partly materialized, as a ghost.  It is not the soul that returns, for the soul, which is immortal, is composed of the four higher spiritual essences that surround the ego, and are carried on into the next life.  These astral bodies, therefore, fail to terrify the Buddhists, who know them only as shadows, with no real volition.  The Japs, in point of fact, have learned how to exterminate them.

There is a certain powder, Hoku informed me, which, when burnt in their presence, transforms them from the rarefied, or semi-spiritual, condition to the state of matter.  The ghost, so to speak, is precipitated into and becomes a material shape which can easily be disposed of.  In this state it is confined and allowed to disintegrate slowly where it can cause no further annoyance.

This long-winded explanation piqued my curiosity, which was not to be satisfied until I had seen the Japanese method applied.  It was not long before I had an opportunity.  A particularly revolting murder having been committed in San Francisco, my friend Hoku Yamanochi applied for the house, and, after the police had finished their examination, he was permitted to occupy it for a half-year at the ridiculous price of three dollars a month.  He invited me to share his quarters, which were large and luxuriously furnished.

For a week, nothing abnormal occurred.  Then, one night, I was awakened by terrifying groans followed by a blood-curdling shriek which seemed to emerge from a large closet in my room, the scene of the late atrocity. I confess that I had all the covers pulled over my head and was shivering with horror when my Japanese friend entered, wearing a pair of flowered-silk pajamas.  Hearing his voice, I peeped forth, to see him smiling reassuringly.

“You some kind of very foolish fellow,” he said.  “I show you how to fix him!”

He took from his pocket three conical red pastils, placed them upon a saucer and lighted them.  Then, holding the fuming dish in one outstretched hand, he walked to the closed door and opened it.  The shrieks burst out afresh, and, as I recalled the appalling details of the scene which had occurred in this very room only five weeks ago, I shuddered at his temerity.  But he was quite calm.

Soon, I saw the wraith-like form of the recent victim dart from the closet.  She crawled under my bed and ran about the room, endeavoring to escape, but was pursued by Hoku, who waved his smoking plate with indefatigable patience and dexterity.

At last he had her cornered, and the specter was caught behind a curtain of odorous fumes.  Slowly the figure grew more distinct, assuming the consistency of a heavy vapor, shrinking somewhat in the operation.  Hoku now hurriedly turned to me.

“You hully up, bling me one pair bellows pletty quick!” he commanded.

I ran into his room and brought the bellows from his fireplace.  These he pressed flat, and then carefully inserting one toe of the ghost into the nozzle and opening the handles steadily, he sucked in a portion of the unfortunate woman's anatomy, and dexterously squirted the vapor into a large jar, which had been placed in the room for the purpose.  Two more operations were necessary to withdraw the phantom completely from the corner and empty it into the jar.  At last the transfer was effected and the receptacle securely stoppered and sealed.

“In formeryore-time,” Hoku explained to me, “old pliests sucked ghost with mouth and spit him to inside of vase with acculacy.  Modern-time method more better for stomach and epiglottis.”

“How long will this ghost keep?” I inquired.

“Oh, about four, five hundled years, maybe,” was his reply.  “Ghost now change from spilit to matter, and comes under legality of matter as usual science.”

“What are you going to do with her?” I asked.

“Send him to Buddhist temple in Japan. Old pliest use him for high celemony,” was the answer.

My next desire was to obtain some of Hoku Yamanochi's ghost-powder and analyze it.  For a while it defied my attempts, but, after many months of patient research, I discovered that it could be produced, in all its essential qualities, by means of a fusion of formaldehyde and hypophenyltrybrompropionic acid in an electrified vacuum.  With this product I began a series of interesting experiments.

As it became necessary for me to discover the habitat of ghosts in considerable numbers, I joined the American Society for Psychical Research, thus securing desirable information in regard to haunted houses.  These I visited persistently, until my powder was perfected and had been proved efficacious for the capture of any ordinary house-broken phantom.  For a while I contented myself with the mere sterilization of these specters, but, as I became surer of success, I began to attempt the transfer of ghosts to receptacles wherein they could be transported and studied at my leisure, classified and preserved for future reference.

Hoku's bellows I soon discarded in favor of a large-sized bicycle-pump, and eventually I had constructed one of my own, of a pattern which enabled me to inhale an entire ghost at a single stroke.  With this powerful instrument I was able to compress even an adult life-sized ghost into a two-quart bottle, in the neck of which a sensitive valve (patented) prevented the specter from emerging during process.

My invention was not yet, however, quite satisfactory.  While I had no trouble in securing ghosts of recent creation—spirits, that is, who were yet of almost the consistency of matter—on several of my trips abroad in search of material I found in old manor houses or ruined castles many specters so ancient that they had become highly rarefied and tenuous, being at times scarcely visible to the naked eye.  Such elusive spirits are able to pass through walls and elude pursuit with ease.  It became necessary for me to obtain some instrument by which their capture could be conveniently effected.

The ordinary fire-extinguisher of commerce gave me the hint as to how the problem could be solved.  One of these portable hand-instruments I filled with the proper chemicals.  When inverted, the ingredients were commingled in vacuo and a vast volume of gas was liberated.  This was collected in the reservoir provided with a rubber tube having a nozzle at the end.  The whole apparatus being strapped upon my back, I was enabled to direct a stream of powerful precipitating gas in any desired direction, the flow being under control through the agency of a small stopcock.  By means of this ghost-extinguisher I was enabled to pursue my experiments as far as I desired.

So far my investigations had been purely scientific, but before long the commercial value of my discovery began to interest me.  The ruinous effects of spectral visitations upon real estate induced me to realize some pecuniary reward from my ghost-extinguisher, and I began to advertise my business.  By degrees, I became known as an expert in my original line, and my professional services were sought with as much confidence as those of a veterinary surgeon.  I manufactured the Gerrish Ghost-Extinguisher in several sizes, and put it on the market, following this venture with the introduction of my justly celebrated Gerrish Ghost-Grenades.  These hand-implements were made to be kept in racks conveniently distributed in country houses for cases of sudden emergency.  A single grenade, hurled at any spectral form, would, in breaking, liberate enough formaldybrom to coagulate the most perverse spirit, and the resulting vapor could easily be removed from the room by a housemaid with a common broom.

This branch of my business, however, never proved profitable, for the appearance of ghosts, especially in the United States, is seldom anticipated.  Had it been possible for me to invent a preventive as well as a remedy, I might now be a millionaire; but there are limits even to modern science.

Having exhausted the field at home, I visited England in the hope of securing customers among the country families there.  To my surprise, I discovered that the possession of a family specter was considered as a permanent improvement to the property, and my offers of service in ridding houses of ghostly tenants awakened the liveliest resentment.  As a layer of ghosts I was much lower in the social scale than a layer of carpets.

Disappointed and discouraged, I returned home to make a further study of the opportunities of my invention.  I had, it seemed, exhausted the possibilities of the use of unwelcome phantoms.  Could I not, I thought, derive a revenue from the traffic in desirable specters? I decided to renew my investigations.

The nebulous spirits preserved in my laboratory, which I had graded and classified, were, you will remember, in a state of suspended animation.  They were, virtually, embalmed apparitions, their inevitable decay delayed, rather than prevented.  The assorted ghosts that I had now preserved in hermetically sealed tins were thus in a state of unstable equilibrium.  The tins once opened and the vapor allowed to dissipate, the original astral body would in time be reconstructed and the warmed-over specter would continue its previous career.  But this process, when naturally performed, took years.  The interval was quite too long for the phantom to be handled in any commercial way.  My problem was, therefore, to produce from my tinned Essence of Ghost a specter that was capable of immediately going into business and that could haunt a house while you wait.

It was not until radium was discovered that I approached the solution of my great problem, and even then months of indefatigable labor were necessary before the process was perfected.  It has now been well demonstrated that the emanations of radiant energy sent forth by this surprising element defy our former scientific conceptions of the constitution of matter.  It was for me to prove that the vibratory activity of radium (whose amplitudes and intensity are undoubtedly four-dimensional) effects a sort of allotropic modification in the particles of that imponderable ether which seems to lie halfway between matter and pure spirit.  This is as far as I need to go in my explanation, for a full discussion involves the use of quaternions and the method of least squares.  It will be sufficient for the layman to know that my preserved phantoms, rendered radio-active, would, upon contact with the air, resume their spectral shape.

The possible extension of my business now was enormous, limited only by the difficulty in collecting the necessary stock.  It was by this time almost as difficult to get ghosts as it was to get radium.  Finding that a part of my stock had spoiled, I was now possessed of only a few dozen cans of apparitions, many of these being of inferior quality.  I immediately set about replenishing my raw material.  It was not enough for me to pick up a ghost here and there, as one might get old mahogany; I determined to procure my phantoms in wholesale lots.

Accident favored my design.  In an old volume of Blackwood's Magazine I happened, one day, to come across an interesting article upon the battle of Waterloo.  It mentioned, incidentally, a legend to the effect that every year, upon the anniversary of the celebrated victory, spectral squadrons had been seen by the peasants charging battalions of ghostly grenadiers.  Here was my opportunity.

I made elaborate preparations for the capture of this job lot of phantoms upon the next anniversary of the fight.  Hard by the fatal ditch which engulfed Napoleon's cavalry I stationed a corps of able assistants provided with rapid-fire extinguishers ready to enfilade the famous sunken road. I stationed myself with a No. 4 model magazine-hose, with a four-inch nozzle, directly in the path which I knew would be taken by the advancing squadron.

It was a fine, clear night, lighted, at first, by a slice of new moon; but later, dark, except for the pale illumination of the stars.  I have seen many ghosts in my time—ghosts in garden and garret, at noon, at dusk, at dawn, phantoms fanciful, and specters sad and spectacular—but never have I seen such an impressive sight as this nocturnal charge of cuirassiers, galloping in goblin glory to their time-honored doom.  From afar the French reserves presented the appearance of a nebulous mass, like a low-lying cloud or fog-bank, faintly luminous, shot with fluorescent gleams.  As the squadron drew nearer in its desperate charge, the separate forms of the troopers shaped themselves, and the galloping guardsmen grew ghastly with supernatural splendor.

Although I knew them to be immaterial and without mass or weight, I was terrified at their approach, fearing to be swept under the hoofs of the nightmares they rode.  Like one in a dream, I started to run, but in another instant they were upon me, and I turned on my stream of formaldybrom.  Then I was overwhelmed in a cloud-burst of wild warlike wraiths.

The column swept past me, over the bank, plunging to its historic fate.  The cut was piled full of frenzied, scrambling specters, as rank after rank swept down into the horrid gut.  At last the ditch swarmed full of writhing forms and the carnage was dire.

My assistants with the extinguishers stood firm, and although almost unnerved by the sight, they summoned their courage, and directed simultaneous streams of formaldybrom into the struggling mass of fantoms.  As soon as my mind returned, I busied myself with the huge tanks I had prepared for use as receivers.  These were fitted with a mechanism similar to that employed in portable forges, by which the heavy vapor was sucked off.  Luckily the night was calm, and I was enabled to fill a dozen cylinders with the precipitated ghosts.  The segregation of individual forms was, of course, impossible, so that men and horses were mingled in a horrible mixture of fricasseed spirits.  I intended subsequently to empty the soup into a large reservoir and allow the separate specters to reform according to the laws of spiritual cohesion.

Circumstances, however, prevented my ever accomplishing this result. I returned home, to find awaiting me an order so large and important that I had no time in which to operate upon my cylinders of cavalry.

My patron was the proprietor of a new sanatorium for nervous invalids, located near some medicinal springs in the Catskills.  His building was unfortunately located, having been built upon the site of a once-famous summer hotel, which, while filled with guests, had burnt to the ground, scores of lives having been lost.  Just before the patients were to be installed in the new structure, it was found that the place was haunted by the victims of the conflagration to a degree that rendered it inconvenient as a health resort.  My professional services were requested, therefore, to render the building a fitting abode for convalescents.  I wrote to the proprietor, fixing my charge at five thousand dollars.  As my usual rate was one hundred dollars per ghost, and over a hundred lives were lost at the fire, I considered this price reasonable, and my offer was accepted.

The sanatorium job was finished in a week.  I secured one hundred and two superior spectral specimens, and upon my return to the laboratory, put them up in heavily embossed tins with attractive labels in colors.

My delight at the outcome of this business was, however, soon transformed to anger and indignation.  The proprietor of the health resort, having found that the specters from his place had been sold, claimed a rebate upon the contract price equal to the value of the modified ghosts transferred to my possession.  This, of course, I could not allow. I wrote, demanding immediate payment according to our agreement, and this was peremptorily refused.  The manager's letter was insulting in the extreme.  The Pied Piper of Hamelin was not worse treated than I felt myself to be; so, like the piper, I determined to have my revenge.

I got out the twelve tanks of Waterloo ghost-hash from the storerooms, and treated them with radium for two days.  These I shipped to the Catskills billed as hydrogen gas.  Then, accompanied by two trustworthy assistants, I went to the sanatorium and preferred my demand for payment in person.  I was ejected with contumely.  Before my hasty exit, however, I had the satisfaction of noticing that the building was filled with patients.  Languid ladies were seated in wicker chairs upon the piazzas, and frail anemic girls filled the corridors.  It was a hospital of nervous wrecks whom the slightest disturbance would throw into a panic.  I suppressed all my finer feelings of mercy and kindness and smiled grimly as I walked back to the village.

That night was black and lowering, fitting weather for the pandemonium I was about to turn loose.  At ten o'clock, I loaded a wagon with the tanks of compressed cohorts, and, muffled in heavy overcoats, we drove to the sanatorium.  All was silent as we approached; all was dark.  The wagon concealed in a grove of pines, we took out the tanks one by one, and placed them beneath the ground-floor windows.  The sashes were easily forced open, and raised enough to enable us to insert the rubber tubes connected with the iron reservoirs.  At midnight everything was ready.

I gave the word, and my assistants ran from tank to tank, opening the stopcocks.  With a hiss as of escaping steam the huge vessels emptied themselves, vomiting forth clouds of vapor, which, upon contact with the air, coagulated into strange shapes as the white of an egg does when dropped into boiling water.  The rooms became instantly filled with dismembered shades of men and horses seeking wildly to unite themselves with their proper parts.

Legs ran down the corridors, seeking their respective trunks, arms writhed wildly reaching for missing bodies, heads rolled hither and yon in search of native necks.  Horses' tails and hoofs whisked and hurried in quest of equine ownership until, reorganized, the spectral steeds galloped about to find their riders.

Had it been possible, I would have stopped this riot of wraiths long ere this, for it was more awful than I had anticipated, but it was already too late.  Cowering in the garden, I began to hear the screams of awakened and distracted patients.  In another moment, the front door of the hotel was burst open, and a mob of hysterical women in expensive nightgowns rushed out upon the lawn, and huddled in shrieking groups.

I fled into the night.

I fled, but Napoleon's men fled with me.  Compelled by I know not what fatal astral attraction, perhaps the subtle affinity of the creature for the creator, the spectral shells, moved by some mysterious mechanics of spiritual being, pursued me with fatuous fury.  I sought refuge, first, in my laboratory, but, even as I approached, a lurid glare foretold me of its destruction.  As I drew nearer, the whole ghost-factory was seen to be in flames; every moment crackling reports were heard, as the over-heated tins of phantasmagoria exploded and threw their supernatural contents upon the night.  These liberated ghosts joined the army of Napoleon's outraged warriors, and turned upon me.  There was not enough formaldybrom in all the world to quench their fierce energy.  There was no place in all the world safe for me from their visitation.  No ghost-extinguisher was powerful enough to lay the host of spirits that haunted me henceforth, and I had neither time nor money left with which to construct new Gatling quick-firing tanks.

It is little comfort to me to know that one hundred nervous invalids were completely restored to health by means of the terrific shock which I administered.

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